Studies/Reports

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What these studies demonstrate is that there are safer alternatives to using incineration in lithium battery recycling. More studies will be added. Suggestions appreciated.

2020.   Li et al. Water-Based Electrode Manufacturing and Direct Recycling of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes—A Green and Sustainable Manufacturing System. iScience [Epub before print].

2020. Liu J, Wang H, Hu T, Bai X, et al. Recovery of LiCoO2 and graphite from spent lithium-ion batteries by cryogenic grinding and froth flotation. Minerals Engineering 148: 106223. March 15.

2020.  Lombardo et al. Incineration of EV Lithium-ion batteries as a pretreatment for recycling – Determination of the potential formation of hazardous by-products and effects on metal compoundsJournal of Hazardous Materials. 393:122372.

2020.   Mossali et al,  Lithium-ion batteries towards circular economy: A literature review of opportunities and issues of recycling treatmentsJournal of Environmental Management 15:110500.

2020.   Meshram et al. Environmental impact of spent lithium ion batteries and green recycling perspectives by organic acids – A review. Chemosphere 242: 125291.

2020. Mossali E, Picone N, Gentilini L, et al. Lithium-ion batteries towards circular economy: A literature review of opportunities and issues of recycling treatments. Journal of Environmental Management 64:110500.

2020. Phelps L. USEPA PFAS Thermal Treatment & Methods Research – Opportunities for Collaborative Incineration Field Testing. April 27, 2020.

2020. Pindar S, Dhawan N. Rapid recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries using microwave route. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. Sept 10.

2020. Wang M, Tan Q, Liu L, Li J. Selective regeneration of lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries using ionic substitution stimulated by mechanochemistry. Journal of Cleaner Production, August 9.

2020. Weichenthal S, Olaniyan T, Christidis T, et al. Within-city Spatial Variations in Ambient Ultrafine Particle Concentrations and Incident Brain Tumors in Adults. Epidemiology 31 (2):177-181.

2020. Wu Z, Soh T, Chan JJ, Meng S, Meyer D, Srinivasan M, Tay CY. Repurposing of Fruit Peel Waste as a Green Reductant for Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Environmental Science & Technology 54(15):9681-9692. Supporting information at es0c02873_si_001.pdf (358.26 kb)

2020 Xiao J, Li J, Xu Z. Challenges to future development of spent lithium ion batteries recovery from environmental and technological perspectives. Environmental Science & Technology 54(1):9–25.

2020.  Yu S, Xiong J, Wu D, Lu X, et al. Pyrolysis characteristics of cathode from spent lithium-ion batteries using advanced TG-FTIR-GC/MS analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. July 13.

2019. Velázquez-Martínez O, Valio J, Santasalo-Aarnio A, Markus Reuter M, Serna-Guerrero R. Critical Review of Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Processes from a Circular Economy Perspective. Batteries 5(4), 68;

2019. Jacody M. It’s time to get serious about recycling lithium-ion batteries. C&EN (Chemical & Engineering News). July 14.

2019a. Wang M, Tan Q, Liu L, Li J. A low-toxicity and high-efficiency deep eutectic solvent for the separation of aluminum foil and cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Hazardous Materials 380:120846.

2019b.Wang M, Tan Q, Liu L, Li J. Efficient separation of aluminum foil and cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries using a low-temperature molten salt. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 7:8287–8294.

2019. Matek B, Dorn J, Divita F. Life Cycle Assessment: C4V Lithium-Ion Battery Cells for Electric Vehicles. Report Number 19-44. Prepared for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), Albany, NY.

2018. Gaines L, Richa K, Spangenberger J. Key issues for Li-ion battery recycling. Energy & Sustainability 5:E14.

2018. Gao W, Liu C, Cao H, Zheng X, et al. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries. Waste Management 75:477–485.

2018.  Natarajan S, Aravindan V. Recycling strategies for spent Li-ion battery mixed cathodes. ACS Energy Letters 3(9):2101–2103

2017. Larsson F, Andersson P, Blomqvist P, Mellander BE. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires. Scientific Reports 7:10018. March 22.

2017.   Prabaharan et al.  Electrochemical process for electrode material of spent lithium ion batteries. Waste Management 68:527-533.

2017. Swain B.  Recovery and recycling of lithium: A reviewSeparation and Purification Technology 172:388-403.

2017. Xiao J, Li J, Xu Z. Novel approach for in situ recovery of lithium carbonate from spent lithium ion batteries using vacuum metallurgy. Environmental Science & Technology 51(20):11960–11966.

2014. Chen X, Zhou T.  Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Waste Management and Research 32(11):1083–1093.

2014. Gaines L. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course. Sustainable Materials and Technologies 1-2:2-7.

2014. Zeng X, Li J. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high- power lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Hazardous Materials 271:50–56.

2012. Choi S, Kim Y. Microstructural analysis of poly (vinylidene fluoride) using benzene derivative pyrolysis products. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 96:16–23.

1994. Zulfiqar S, Rizvi M, Munir A, McNeil IC. Study of the thermal degradation of polychlorotrifluoroethylene, poly (vinylidene fluoride) and copolymers of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride. Polymer Degradation and Stability 43(3):423– 430.

1990. O’Shea ML, Morterra C, Low MJD. Spectroscopic studies of carbons. XVII Pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride. Materials Chemistry and Physics 26(2):193–209.


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