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10 Arguments Against the Proposal

What these studies demonstrate is that there are safer alternatives to using incineration in lithium battery recycling. More studies will be added. Suggestions appreciated.

2020.   Li et al. Water-Based Electrode Manufacturing and Direct Recycling of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes—A Green and Sustainable Manufacturing System. iScience [Epub before print].

2020. Liu J, Wang H, Hu T, Bai X, et al. Recovery of LiCoO2 and graphite from spent lithium-ion batteries by cryogenic grinding and froth flotation. Minerals Engineering 148: 106223. March 15.

2020.  Lombardo et al. Incineration of EV Lithium-ion batteries as a pretreatment for recycling – Determination of the potential formation of hazardous by-products and effects on metal compoundsJournal of Hazardous Materials. 393:122372.

2020.   Mossali et al,  Lithium-ion batteries towards circular economy: A literature review of opportunities and issues of recycling treatmentsJournal of Environmental Management 15:110500.

2020.   Meshram et al. Environmental impact of spent lithium ion batteries and green recycling perspectives by organic acids – A review. Chemosphere 242: 125291.

2020. Mossali E, Picone N, Gentilini L, et al. Lithium-ion batteries towards circular economy: A literature review of opportunities and issues of recycling treatments. Journal of Environmental Management 64:110500.

2020. Phelps L. USEPA PFAS Thermal Treatment & Methods Research – Opportunities for Collaborative Incineration Field Testing. April 27, 2020.

2020. Pindar S, Dhawan N. Rapid recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries using microwave route. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. Sept 10.

2020. Wang M, Tan Q, Liu L, Li J. Selective regeneration of lithium from spent lithium-ion batteries using ionic substitution stimulated by mechanochemistry. Journal of Cleaner Production, August 9.

2020. Weichenthal S, Olaniyan T, Christidis T, et al. Within-city Spatial Variations in Ambient Ultrafine Particle Concentrations and Incident Brain Tumors in Adults. Epidemiology 31 (2):177-181.

2020. Wu Z, Soh T, Chan JJ, Meng S, Meyer D, Srinivasan M, Tay CY. Repurposing of Fruit Peel Waste as a Green Reductant for Recycling of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries. Environmental Science & Technology 54(15):9681-9692. Supporting information at es0c02873_si_001.pdf (358.26 kb)

2020 Xiao J, Li J, Xu Z. Challenges to future development of spent lithium ion batteries recovery from environmental and technological perspectives. Environmental Science & Technology 54(1):9–25.

2020.  Yu S, Xiong J, Wu D, Lu X, et al. Pyrolysis characteristics of cathode from spent lithium-ion batteries using advanced TG-FTIR-GC/MS analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. July 13.

2019. Velázquez-Martínez O, Valio J, Santasalo-Aarnio A, Markus Reuter M, Serna-Guerrero R. Critical Review of Lithium-Ion Battery Recycling Processes from a Circular Economy Perspective. Batteries 5(4), 68;

2019. Jacody M. It’s time to get serious about recycling lithium-ion batteries. C&EN (Chemical & Engineering News). July 14.

2019a. Wang M, Tan Q, Liu L, Li J. A low-toxicity and high-efficiency deep eutectic solvent for the separation of aluminum foil and cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Hazardous Materials 380:120846.

2019b.Wang M, Tan Q, Liu L, Li J. Efficient separation of aluminum foil and cathode materials from spent lithium-ion batteries using a low-temperature molten salt. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 7:8287–8294.

2019. Matek B, Dorn J, Divita F. Life Cycle Assessment: C4V Lithium-Ion Battery Cells for Electric Vehicles. Report Number 19-44. Prepared for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), Albany, NY.

2018. Gaines L, Richa K, Spangenberger J. Key issues for Li-ion battery recycling. Energy & Sustainability 5:E14.

2018. Gao W, Liu C, Cao H, Zheng X, et al. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries. Waste Management 75:477–485.

2018.  Natarajan S, Aravindan V. Recycling strategies for spent Li-ion battery mixed cathodes. ACS Energy Letters 3(9):2101–2103

2017. Larsson F, Andersson P, Blomqvist P, Mellander BE. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires. Scientific Reports 7:10018. March 22.

2017.   Prabaharan et al.  Electrochemical process for electrode material of spent lithium ion batteries. Waste Management 68:527-533.

2017. Swain B.  Recovery and recycling of lithium: A reviewSeparation and Purification Technology 172:388-403.

2017. Xiao J, Li J, Xu Z. Novel approach for in situ recovery of lithium carbonate from spent lithium ion batteries using vacuum metallurgy. Environmental Science & Technology 51(20):11960–11966.

2014. Chen X, Zhou T.  Hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of metal values from spent lithium-ion batteries in citric acid media. Waste Management and Research 32(11):1083–1093.

2014. Gaines L. The future of automotive lithium-ion battery recycling: Charting a sustainable course. Sustainable Materials and Technologies 1-2:2-7.

2014. Zeng X, Li J. Innovative application of ionic liquid to separate Al and cathode materials from spent high- power lithium-ion batteries. Journal of Hazardous Materials 271:50–56.

2012. Choi S, Kim Y. Microstructural analysis of poly (vinylidene fluoride) using benzene derivative pyrolysis products. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 96:16–23.

1994. Zulfiqar S, Rizvi M, Munir A, McNeil IC. Study of the thermal degradation of polychlorotrifluoroethylene, poly (vinylidene fluoride) and copolymers of chlorotrifluoroethylene and vinylidene fluoride. Polymer Degradation and Stability 43(3):423– 430.

1990. O’Shea ML, Morterra C, Low MJD. Spectroscopic studies of carbons. XVII Pyrolysis of polyvinylidene fluoride. Materials Chemistry and Physics 26(2):193–209.

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